구글와이드(336x280)_상단 2개


(영문) ActionScript - 액션 스크립트 Flash

ActionScript

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search
ActionScript
Paradigm Multi-paradigm
Appeared in 1998
Designed by Gary Grossman
Developer Macromedia, Adobe Systems
Latest release 3.0/ June 27, 2006
Typing discipline Strongly, Statically, Safely typed
Major implementations Adobe Flash, Adobe Flex
Influenced by JavaScript, Java
OS Cross-platform
ActionScript
File extension: .as
MIME type: application/actionscript[1]
ActionScript is a scripting language based on ECMAScript (JavaScript), used primarily for the development of websites and software using the Adobe Flash Player platform (in the form of SWF files embedded into Web pages). Originally developed by Macromedia, the language is now owned by Adobe (which acquired Macromedia in 2005) which continues its development. ActionScript was initially designed for controlling simple 2D vector animations made in Adobe Flash (formerly Macromedia Flash). Later versions added functionality allowing for the creation of Web-based games and rich Internet applications with streaming media (such as video and audio).

Contents

[hide]

[edit] History

ActionScript started as a scripting language for the Adobe Flash authoring tool. The first three versions of the Flash authoring tool provided limited interactivity features. Early Flash developers could attach a simple command, called an "action", to a button or a frame. The set of actions was limited to basic navigation controls, with commands such as "play", "stop", "get URL", and "goto and play".
With the release of Flash 4 in 1999, this simple set of actions matured into a small scripting language. New capabilities introduced for Flash 4 included variables, expressions, operators, if statements, and loops. Although referred to internally as "ActionScript", the Flash 4 user manual and marketing documents continued to use the term "actions" to describe this set of commands .

[edit] Timeline by player

  • Flash Lite 1.0: Flash Lite is the Flash technology specifically developed for mobile phones and consumer electronics devices. Supports Flash 4 ActionScript.
  • Flash Lite 1.1: Added support for some Flash 5 ActionScript.
  • Flash Lite 2.0 and 2.1: Added support for Flash 7 ActionScript 2.0.
  • Flash Lite 3: Added FLV video playback.
  • Flash Player 2: The first version with scripting support. Actions included gotoAndPlay, gotoAndStop, nextFrame and nextScene for timeline control.
  • Flash Player 3: Expanded basic scripting support with the ability to load external SWFs (loadMovie).
  • Flash Player 4: First player with a full scripting implementation (called Actions). The scripting was a slash based syntax and contained support for loops, conditionals, variables and other basic language constructs.
  • Flash Player 6: Added an event handling model, accessibility controls and support for switch. The first version with support for the AMF and RTMP protocols which allowed for ondemand audio/video streaming.
  • Flash Player 8: Further extended ActionScript 1/ActionScript 2 by adding new class libraries with APIs for controlling bitmap data at run-time, file uploads and live filters for blur and dropshadow.
  • Flash Player 9 (initially called 8.5): Added ActionScript 3.0 with the advent of a new virtual machine, called AVM2 (ActionScript Virtual Machine 2), which coexists with the previous AVM1 needed to support legacy content. Performance increases were a major objective for this release of the player including a new JIT compilation. Support for binary sockets, E4X XML parsing, full-screen mode and Regular Expressions were added. This is the first release of the player to be titled Adobe Flash Player.

[edit] Timeline by ActionScript version

2000–2003: ActionScript "1.0" With the release of Flash 5 in September 2000, the "actions" from Flash 4 were enhanced once more and named "ActionScript" for the first time.[2] This was the first version of ActionScript with influences from JavaScript and the ECMA-262 (Third Edition) standard, supporting the said standard's object model and many of its core data types. Local variables may be declared with the var statement, and user-defined functions with parameter passing and return values can also be created. Notably, ActionScript could now also be typed with a text editor rather than being assembled by choosing actions from drop-down lists and dialog box controls. With the next release of its authoring tool, Flash MX, and its corresponding player, Flash Player 6, the language remained essentially unchanged; there were only minor changes, such as the addition of the switch statement and the "strict equality" (===) operator, which brought it closer to being ECMA-262-compliant. Two important features of ActionScript that distinguish it from later versions are its loose type system and its reliance on prototype-based inheritance. Loose typing refers to the ability of a variable to hold any type of data. This allows for rapid script development and is particularly well-suited for small-scale scripting projects. Prototype-based inheritance is the ActionScript 1.0 mechanism for code reuse and object-oriented programming. Instead of a class keyword that defines common characteristics of a class, ActionScript 1.0 uses a special object that serves as a "prototype" for a class of objects. All common characteristics of a class are defined in the class's prototype object and every instance of that class contains a link to that prototype object.
2003–2006: ActionScript 2.0 The next major revision of the language, ActionScript 2.0, was introduced in September 2003 with the release of Flash MX 2004 and its corresponding player, Flash Player 7. In response to user demand for a language better equipped for larger and more complex applications, ActionScript 2.0 featured compile-time type checking and class-based syntax, such as the keywords class and extends. (While this allowed for a more flexible object-oriented programming approach, the code would still be compiled to ActionScript 1.0 bytecode, allowing it to be used on the preceding Flash Player 6 as well. In other words, the class-based inheritance syntax was a layer on top of the existing prototype-based system.) With ActionScript 2.0, developers could constrain variables to a specific type by adding a type annotation so that type mismatch errors could be found at compile-time. ActionScript 2.0 also introduced class-based inheritance syntax so that developers could create classes and interfaces, much as they would in class-based languages such as Java and C++. This version conformed partially to the ECMAScript Fourth Edition draft specification.
2006–today: ActionScript 3.0 In June 2006, ActionScript 3.0 debuted with Adobe Flex 2.0 and its corresponding player, Flash Player 9. ActionScript 3.0 was a fundamental restructuring of the language, so much so that it uses an entirely different virtual machine. Flash Player 9 contains two virtual machines, AVM1 for code written in ActionScript 1.0 and 2.0, and AVM2 for content written in ActionScript 3.0. ActionScript 3.0 provides not only a significant enhancement in performance, but also a more robust programming model that lends itself to complex Rich Internet Application development.
The update to the language introduced several new features:

[edit] Syntax

ActionScript code is free form and thus may be created with whichever amount or style of whitespace that the author desires. The basic syntax is similar to the C++ programming language.

[edit] ActionScript 2.0

When one is working with the Macromedia Flash IDE, it is possible to use the trace() function to print information in the application's output terminal. If one uses this command, then a very short "legal" program in ActionScript would be the following code on frame 1 of layer 1 in an otherwise empty Flash document:
trace("Hello, world!"); 
However, due to this command being unused in other interpreters of the language, such as the standard Adobe Flash Player, it is reasonable to suggest that this does not suffice. For such a reason, one can consider the following code instead, which works in any compliant player, as the shortest program instead:[3]
createTextField("greet", 0, 0, 0, 100, 100); greet.text = "Hello, world!"; 
This creates a text field at depth 0, at location 0, 0 px on the screen, that is 100 px wide and high. Then the "text" parameter is set to the "Hello, world!" string, and it is automatically displayed in the player.
When writing external ActionScript 2.0 class files the above example could be written in a file named Greeter.as as following.
class com.example.Greeter extends MovieClip {         public function Greeter()         {                 var txtHello:TextField = this.createTextField("txtHello", 0, 0, 0, 100, 100);                 txtHello.text = "Hello World";         } } 

[edit] ActionScript 3.0

ActionScript 3.0 has a similar syntax to ActionScript 2.0 but different set of APIs for creating objects. Compare the below to the previous ActionScript 2.0 version:
var greet:* = addChild(new TextField()); greet.text = "Hello world"; 
Minimal ActionScript 3.0 programs may be somewhat larger and more complicated due to the increased separation of the programming language and the Flash IDE.
Presume the following file to be Greeter.as:
package com.example {         import flash.text.TextField;         import flash.display.Sprite;
 
        public class Greeter extends Sprite         {                 public function Greeter()                 {                         var txtHello:TextField = new TextField();                         txtHello.text = "Hello World";                         addChild(txtHello);                 }         } } 
Finally, an example of using ActionScript when developing Flex applications, again presuming the following content to be in a file named Greeter.as:
package  {         public class Greeter         {                 public static function sayHello():String                 {                         var greet:String = "Hello, world!";                         return greet;                 }         } } 
This code will work with the following MXML application file:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <mx:Application xmlns:mx="http://www.adobe.com/2006/mxml" xmlns="*" layout="vertical" creationComplete="initApp()">
 
        <mx:Script>                 <![CDATA[[                       public function initApp():void                       {                               // Prints our "Hello, world!" message into "mainTxt".                               mainTxt.text = Greeter.sayHello();                       }               ]]>         </mx:Script>
 
        <mx:Label id="title" fontSize="24" fontStyle="bold" text="\"Hello, world!\" Example"/>         <mx:TextArea id = "mainTxt" width="250"/>   
 
</mx:Application> 

[edit] Examples

[edit] ActionScript 2.0 examples

The following prints Hello world into the Flash IDE output panel. Note this will only work when run inside the Flash IDE, as the trace function is only supported inside it.
trace("Hello world!"); 
The following code prints Hello world to the stage (screen).
_root.createTextField("myText", 1, 0, 0, 100, 25); _root.myText.text = "Hello world!"; 
The following code outputs the current mouse position when the mouse moves, by using the onMouseMove event. Again this will only work in the Flash IDE.
onMouseMove = function () {         trace("X: " + _root._xmouse);         trace("Y: " + _root._ymouse); }; 
The following code, when placed on a Button, begins to play the timeline of the MovieClip the button is placed in. This also applies to the root timeline since the root is considered a MovieClip as well.
on(release) {         play(); } 
This more advanced example creates an array containing numbers and strings, and assigns a number to a variable called num and a string to a variable called str using prototype functions and function recursion. Then, using the MovieClip API, a text field is drawn on screen, into which the variable values are written.
Array.prototype.pickNumber = function():Number {         var rand:Number = random(this.length);         return (typeof (this[rand]) == "number") ? this[rand] : this.pickNumber(); };
 
Array.prototype.pickString = function():String {         var rand:Number = random(this.length);         return (typeof (this[rand]) == "string") ? this[rand] : this.pickString(); };
 
var myArray:Array = new Array("Hello", "ActionScript", 3, 7, 11, "Flash"); var num:Number = myArray.pickNumber(); var str:String = myArray.pickString(); _root.createTextField("txt", 1, 10, 10, 530, 390); txt.text = "Array = " + myArray + "\nRandom Number = " + num + "\nRandom String = " + str; 
Array and dataProvider example:
var aData:Array = [{name: "J. Bell", age: "55"}, {name: "B. Longman", age: "21"}]; dataGrid.dataProvider = aData; 

[edit] ActionScript 3.0 examples

This Hello World example uses ActionScript 3.0:
package {         import flash.display.Sprite;         import flash.text.TextField;         import flash.filters.DropShadowFilter;
 
        public class HelloWorld2 extends Sprite         {                 public function HelloWorld2()                 {                         var shad:DropShadowFilter = new DropShadowFilter (2, 45, 0x000000, 25, 3, 3, 2, 2);                         var txt:TextField = new TextField();                         txt.textColor = 0xFFFFFF;                         txt.filters = [shad];                         txt.width = 200;                         txt.x = Math.random() * 300;                         txt.y = Math.random() * 300;                         txt.selectable = false;                         txt.text = "Hello World welcome! [" + Math.round(txt.x) + "," + Math.round(txt.y) + "]";                         addChild(txt);                 }         } } 

[edit] Data structures

[edit] Data types

ActionScript primarily consists of "fundamental" or "simple" data types which are used to create other data types. These data types are very similar to Java data types. Since ActionScript 3 was a complete rewrite of ActionScript 2, the data types and their inheritances have changed
ActionScript 2 top level data types
  • String - A list of characters such as "Hello World"
  • Number - Any Numeric value
  • Boolean - A simple binary storage that can only be "true" or "false".
  • Object - Object is the data type all complex data types inherit from. It allows for the grouping of methods, functions, parameters, and other objects.
ActionScript 2 complex data types
There are additional "complex" data types. These are more processor and memory intensive and consist of many "simple" data types. For AS2, some these data types are:
  • MovieClip - An ActionScript creation that allows easy usage of visible objects.
  • TextField - A simple dynamic or input text field. Inherits the Movieclip type.
  • Button - A simple button with 4 frames (states): Up, Over, Down and Hit. Inherits the MovieClip type.
  • Date - Allows access to information about a specific point in time.
  • Array - Allows linear storage of data.
  • XML - An XML object
  • XMLNode - An XML node
  • LoadVars - A Load Variables object allows for the storing and send of HTTP POST and HTTP GET variables
  • Sound
  • NetStream
  • NetConnection
  • MovieClipLoader
  • EventListener
ActionScript 3 top level data types (see Data type descriptions)
  • Boolean - The Boolean data type has only two possible values: true and false. No other values are valid.
  • int - The int data type is a 32-bit integer between -2,147,483,648 and 2,147,483,647.
  • Null - The Null data type contains only one value, null. This is the default value for the String data type and all classes that define complex data types, including the Object class.
  • Number - The Number data type can represent integers, unsigned integers, and floating-point numbers. The Number data type uses the 64-bit double-precision format as specified by the IEEE Standard for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic (IEEE-754).
  • String - The String data type represents a sequence of 16-bit characters. Strings are stored internally as Unicode characters, using the UTF-16 format. Previous versions of flash used the UTF-8 format.
  • uint - The uint (Unsigned Integer) data type is a 32-bit unsigned integer between 0 and 4,294,967,295.
  • void - The void data type contains only one value, undefined. In previous versions of ActionScript, undefined was the default value for instances of the Object class. In ActionScript 3.0, the default value for Object instances is null.
ActionScript 3 complex data types (see Data type descriptions)
  • Object - The Object data type is defined by the Object class. The Object class serves as the base class for all class definitions in ActionScript.
  • Array - Contains a list of data. Though ActionScript 3 is a strongly-typed language, it does not support typed Arrays. Thus the contents of an Array may be of any type.
  • Date
  • Error
  • Function
  • RegExp
  • XML
  • XMLList

[edit] Using data types

Using these data types in ActionScript is quite simple. The basic syntax is:
var YourVariableName:YourVariableType = new YourVariableType(Param1, Param2, ..., ParamN); 
So in order to make an empty Object:
var MyObject:Object = new Object(); 
Some types are automatically put in place:
var MyString = "Hello Wikipedia!"; // This would automatically set the variable as a string. var MyNumber = 5; // This would do the same for a number. var MyObject = {Param1:"Hi!", Param2:76}; //This creates an object with two variables. // Param1 is a string with the data of "Hi!", // and Param2 is a number with the data of 76. var MyArray = [5,"Hello!",{a:5, b:7}] //This is the syntax for automatically creating an Array. //It creates an Array with 3 variables. //The first (0) is a number with the value of 5, //the second (1) is a string with the value of "Hello!", //and the third (2) is an object with {a:5, b:7}. 

[edit] Footnotes

  1. ^ RFC 4329
  2. ^ Note that the name "ActionScript 1.0" is a retronym, coined after the release of ActionScript 2.0.
  3. ^ Note that this is also valid ActionScript "1.0", the original scripting language of Flash. However, it does not produce a visible text box in Flash Player versions lower than 6, as an embedded font is required.

[edit] See also

[edit] External links

Wikibooks
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of

[edit] Adobe documentation and references

[edit] Developer community sites

[edit] Tools and scripts




바보들의 영문법 카페(클릭!!)

오늘의 메모....

시사평론-정론직필 다음 카페
http://cafe.daum.net/sisa-1

바보들의 영문법 다음 카페
http://cafe.daum.net/babo-edu/

티스토리 내 블로그
http://earthly.tistory.com/

내 블로그에 있는 모든 글들과 자료에 대한 펌과 링크는 무제한 허용됩니다.
(단, 내 블로그에 덧글쓰기가 차단된 자들에게는 펌, 트랙백, 핑백 등이 일체 허용되지 않음.)

그리고 내 블로그 최근글 목록을 제목별로 보시려면....
바로 아래에 있는 이전글 목록의 최근달을 클릭하시면 됩니다.
그러면 제목을 보고 편하게 글을 골라 보실 수 있습니다.

그리고 내 블로그내 글을 검색하시려면 아래 검색버튼을 이용하시면 됩니다.


가가챗창

flag_Visitors

free counters